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While many public health experts have criticized the US response to the coronavirus pandemic, one doctor said global vaccine development efforts have so far been “near flawless.” Robert Wachter, chairman of the medical department at the University of California at San Francisco, told the Washington Post that he expects several vaccines to be safe and effective by year-end, about a year after SARS-Cov-2 was discovered in December 2019 proven to be the virus that causes COVID-19 disease. “Amazingly impressive,” he added.
Obtaining one or more vaccines through clinical trials in order to gain approval from the Food and Drug Administration, however, is only the first step on the way back to normal. The next is to convince enough people to take it. Sixty-three percent of adults in the United States have raised safety concerns about a coronavirus vaccine. 40 percent of those questioned expressly feared that its rapid development had taken place to fast – in a Harris poll in October.
Even if most people ultimately decide to take coronavirus vaccines, it’s too early to say how effective they will be. The FDA says it won’t approve anything that doesn’t work at least half the time, but some scientists are wondering if that’s even effective enough. The hope is that out of a field of dozens of candidates, at least some will perform better.
There are currently 59 coronavirus vaccines in various stages of clinical trials, a handful of which are almost ready to apply for approval. Most experts believe we will have several ready for distribution by early 2021, but it will likely not be until 2022 for life to return to normal.
Track the coronavirus pandemic.
Here we are examining the current landscape for an evolving coronavirus vaccine. This article is updated frequently and is intended to be a general overview and not a source of medical advice. If you need more information about coronavirus testing, How to find a test site near you.
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Important news about COVID-19 vaccines
The development of COVID vaccines is getting faster and faster
Various acceleration efforts are currently underway, such as the White House’s Operation Warp Speed, which aims to cut red tape in order to speed up vaccine development and be ready to distribute vaccines once they get FDA approval. So far, the U.S. government has pledged over $ 10 billion to several vaccine manufacturers for a total of 800 million vaccine doses.
Vaccines usually take around 10 to 15 years to develop and approve. This is done in four phases, which include human experiments. However, with Operation Warp Speed, approved vaccine projects cannot submit all sections of the application after all four phases have been completed, but can gradually submit data to the FDA.
In the meantime, the program is also funding efforts to begin making cans while clinical trials are ongoing. That is, by the time these vaccines are approved there will already be a supply of doses that can be distributed nationally. “I would hope that the companies will have delivered the promised hundreds of millions of doses by well into the second half of 2021,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, told Forbes in August.
Promising coronavirus vaccines from the UK, US and China
Here’s a quick look at some of the frontrunners in the race for a vaccine against COVID-19, including where the vaccines are located, where they will be tested, and the fact that scientists believe they are ready for widespread use if known.
Oxford University / AstraZeneca (Great Britain): AstraZeneca has resumed testing of its vaccine, which began with 100,000 volunteers in at least three countries. The lead researcher Dr. Sarah Gilbert had originally said that they were aiming for a release in the fall of 2020.
Modern (USA): An apparent dispute with state regulators delayed large-scale human testing, but Moderna’s CEO has told Barron’s that he continues to expect the company to know if the vaccine is safe and effective by Thanksgiving, and to begin selling it in early 2021 can if this is the case.
Pfizer (USA): Although the four COVID-19 vaccine candidates are still in early human trials, two of them have been accelerated by the FDA. Pfizer’s chief business officer told US Congress that the company may be ready to file for FDA approval by October.
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SinoVac (China): The vaccine is currently being tested on around 10,000 volunteers in China and around 9,000 in Brazil. Tests are to be carried out on around 1,900 test subjects in Indonesia shortly. The CEO of BioPharma, SinoVac’s Indonesian partner, expects the vaccine to be ready in early 2021.
SinoPharm (China): The state-owned company is currently testing around 15,000 volunteers in the Middle East in a test that is expected to take three to six months. Initial results suggest that the drug is safe and at least reasonably effective. SinoPharm recently built a second facility to manufacture the vaccine and doubled its capacity to around 200 million doses per year.
CanSino Biologics (China): CanSino’s vaccine is slated to begin large-scale human trials this summer and has already been approved for the Chinese military. The vaccine is based on a modified cold virus that some experts warn may be less effective than other vaccine efforts.
Will there be only one vaccine for everyone?
We probably won’t know until next year, but Fauci has suggested in an article published May 11 in the journal Science that several different vaccines, made and sold by different laboratories, might be required to control the pandemic to end. He has also said that he has different vaccines for different populations. For example, one vaccine for elderly or other high-risk patients, another for healthy adults, another for children, etc.
What if we never find a coronavirus vaccine?
Coronaviruses are a large class of viruses and there are currently no vaccines for them. While there are promising early results, there is no guarantee of a vaccine by 2021. Statistically, only about 6% of vaccine candidates ever make it to market, according to a Reuters special report.
Early evidence suggests that the coronavirus doesn’t seem to mutate as quickly or frequently as the flu, and it is believed that the virus has not yet mutated significantly enough to disrupt vaccine development – although our knowledge may change.
The longer we go without a vaccine, the more likely the focus will be on treatments like that try antiviral drugs Medikament Remdesivir, which has reportedly shown promising results, and Dexamethason, a steroid that doctors say increases survival rates among the most serious of cases. With effective therapeutic treatments, many viruses that used to be fatal are no longer death sentences. For example, thanks to tremendous advances in treatment, patients with HIV can now expect the same life expectancy as non-HIV positive people.
Eventually, the world population may reach the rate required for 60% to 70% Herdenimmunität Protecting those who are not immune, which is the ultimate goal of a vaccine.
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