Egypt celebrates the phenomenon of the sun perpendicular to the face of Ramses II in his great temple in the city of Abu Simbel Aswan Governorate, today, Friday, October 22.The National Institute for Astronomical Research revealed the details of the phenomenon of the sun perpendicular to the face of Ramses II in his great temple in Abu Simbel, where the sun’s rays perpendicular to the Holy of Holies in Abu Simbel temples twice a year, February 22 and October 22.
The institute explained that the sun’s rays penetrate the front corridor of the entrance to the Temple of Ramses II with a length of 200 meters until it reaches the Holy of Holies, pointing out that the Holy of Holies consists of a platform that includes the statue of King Ramses II sitting next to him, the statue of the god Ra Hor, his sister and the god Amun and a fourth statue of the god Ptah.
The Institute of Astronomy pointed out that the funny thing is that the sun does not perpendicular to the face of the statue of “Ptah”, which the ancients considered the god of darkness, explaining that the phenomenon of the sun perpendicularly takes only 20 minutes on that day.
The Institute of Astronomy explained that there are two accounts for the reason for the sun’s perpendicularity, the first is that the ancient Egyptians designed the temple based on the movement of astronomy to determine the start of the agricultural season and its fertilization, and the second narrative: that these two days coincide with the day of the birth of King Ramses II and the day he sat on the throne.
After the construction of the High Dam, the Temple of Abu Simbel was subjected to drowning as a result of the accumulation of water behind the High Dam and the formation of Lake Nasser. The international campaign to save the monuments of Abu Simbel and Nubia began between 1964 and 1968, through UNESCO in cooperation with the Egyptian government, at a cost of $40 million.
The temple was moved by dismantling the parts and statues of the temple and reinstalling it in its new location at a height of 65 meters above the river level, and it is considered one of the greatest works in archaeological engineering.
The temples of Abu Simbel were discovered on August 1, 1817, when the Italian explorer Giovanni Belonzi succeeded in finding them among the sands of the south, explaining that the phenomenon of the sun’s perpendicularity was discovered in 1874, when the explorer “Emilia Edwards” and her accompanying team spotted this. The phenomenon and recorded in her book published in 1899 entitled “A Thousand Miles Over the Nile”.
And King Ramses II built his great temple in Abu Simbel, and built a temple next to it for his beloved wife, Queen Nefertari, but the miracle remains if the days of the sun’s perpendicular days are chosen and deliberately determined before the sculpting process, because this requires full knowledge of the origins of astronomy and many calculations to determine the angle of deviation of the axis of the temple from the east. Besides the miracle in architecture that the axis is straight for a distance of more than sixty meters, especially since the temple is carved in the rock.
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